Ankle fractures

Last evidence check Nov 2013.

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Bauer M et al. Malleolar fractures: nonoperative versus operative treatment. CORR 1985; 199:17-27

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Berkes MB et al. Articular Congruity Is Associated with Short-Term Clinical Outcomes of Operatively Treated SER IV Ankle Fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2013; 95:1769-1775.

Bhandari M et al. Health-related quality of life following operative treatment of unstable ankle fractures: a prospective observational study. J Orthop Trauma. 2004 Jul;18(6):338-45.

Black EM et al. Role of preoperative computed tomography scans in operative planning for malleolar ankle fractures. Foot Ankle Int 2013; 34:697-704.

Blotter RH et al. Acute complications in the operative treatment of isolated ankle fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus. Foot Ankle Int. 1999 Nov;20(11):687-94

Boden SD et al. Mechanical considerations for the syndesmosis screw. A cadaver study. JBJS 1989;71A:1548-55

Brage ME et al. Observer reliability in ankle radiographic measirements. FAI 1997;18:324-9

Brink O et al. Stable lateral malleolar fractures treated with aircast ankle brace and DonJoy R.O.M.- Walker brace: a prospective randomized study. Foot Ankle Int. 1996;17:679-84

Burns WC et al. Tibiotalar joint dynamics: indications for the syndesmotic screw--a cadaver study. Foot Ankle 1993;14:153-8

Candal-Couto JJ et al. Instability of the tibio-fibular syndesmosis: have we been pulling in the wrong direction? Injury 2004;35:814-8

Chou LB, Lee DC. Current Concept Review: Perioperative Soft Tissue Management for Foot and Ankle Fractures. FAI 2009; 30:84-90

Cimino W et al. Early mobilisation of ankle fractures after open reduction and internal fixation. CORR 1991; 267: 152-6

Clohisy DR, Thompson RC Jr. Fractures associated with neuropathic arthropathy in adults who have juvenile-onset diabetes. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1988 Sep;70(8):1192-200

Costigan W, Thordarson DB, Debnath UK. Operative management of ankle fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus. Foot Ankle Int. 2007;28:32-7.

Cottom JM et al. Transosseous fixation of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis: comparison of an interosseous suture and endobutton to traditional screw fixation in 50 cases. JFAS 2009; 48:620-30

Court-Brown CM et al. Adult ankle fractures - an increasing problem? AOS 1997; 69:43-47

Dalal S, Barrie J. Do patients with stable foot and ankle fractures want a cast? BOFAS 2010

De Groot H et al. Outcomes of suture button repair of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Foot Ankle Int 2011; 32: 250-256.

de Souza LJ et al. Results of operative treatment of displaced external rotation-abduction fractures of the ankle. JBJS 1985; 67A:1066-74

Dogra AS, Rangan A. Early mobilisation versus immobilisation of surgically treated ankle fractures. Prospective randomised control trial. Injury 1999;30(6):417-9

Ebraheim NA et al. External rotation-lateral view of the ankle in the assessment of the posterior malleolus. Foot Ankle Int 1999; 20:379-83

Egol KA  et al. Ankle stress test for predicting the need for surgical fixation of isolated fibular fractures. JBJS 2004; 86A:2392-8

Egol KA et al. Functional outcome of surgery for fractures of the ankle. A prospective, randomised comparison of management in a cast or a functional brace. JBJS 2000;82(2):246-9

Egol KA et al. Outcome after unstable ankle fracture: effect of syndesmotic stabilization. J Orthop Trauma. 2010;24(1):7-11

Flynn JM et al. Closed ankle fractures in the diabetic patient.Foot Ankle Int. 2000 Apr;21(4):311-9.

Forsythe K et al. Comparison of a novel FiberWire-button construct versus metallic screw fixation in a syndesmotic injury model. FAI 2008; 29:49-54

Fox A et al. Five years of ankle fractures grouped by stability. Injury 2005;36:836-41

Gardner MJ et al. Fixation of posterior malleolar fractures provides greater syndesmotic stability. CORR 2006; 447:165-71

Gardner MJ et al. Malreduction of the tibiofibular syndesmosis in ankle fractures. FAI 2006; 27:788-92

Gardner MJ et al. The ability of the Lauge-Hansen classification to predict ligament injury and mechanism in ankle fractures: an MRI study. J Orthop Trauma 2006;20:267-72

Gehr J et al. New concepts in the treatment of ankle joint fractures. The IP-XS (XSL) and IP-XXS (XXSL) nail in the treatment of ankle joint fractures. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2004 Mar;124(2):96-103

Gougoulias N et al. Supination-external rotation ankle fractures: stability a key issue. CORR 2010;468:243-51

Gul A et al. Immediate unprotected weight-bearing of operatively treated ankle fractures. Acta Orthop Belg 2007; 73:360-5

Hamid N et al. Outcome after fixation of ankle fractures with an injury to the syndesmosis: the effect of the syndesmosis screw. JBJS 2009; 91B:1069-73

Haraguchi N. Pathoanatomy of posterior malleolar fractures of the ankle. JBJS 2006; 88A:1085-92

Haraguchi N, Armiger RS. A new interpretation of the mechanism of ankle fracture. JBJS 2009; 91A:821-9

Harper M. The short oblique fracture of the distal fibula without medial injury: an assessment of displacement. FAI 1995; 16:181-186

Harper MC, Hardin G. Posterior malleolar fractures of the ankle associated with external rotation-abduction injuries. Results with and without internal fixation. JBJS 1988; 70A:1348-56

Hedstrom M, Ahl T, Dalen N. Early postoperative ankle exercise. A study of postoperative lateral malleolar fractures. Clin Orthop 1994(300):193-6

Hermans JJ. Correlation between radiological assessment of acute ankle fractures and syndesmotic injury on MRI. Skeletal Radiology 2011; DOI 10.1007/s00256-011-1284-2

Hoiness P, Stromsoe KJ. Tricortical versus quadricortical syn- desmosis fixation in ankle fractures: a prospective, randomized study comparing two methods of syndesmosis fixation. J Orthop Trauma. 2004;18:331-333

Holmes GB, Hill N. Fractures and dislocations of the foot and ankle in diabetics associated with Charcot joint changes. Foot Ankle Int. 1994 Apr;15(4):182-5

Hoshino CM et al. Correlation of weightbearing radiographs and stability of stress positive ankle fractures. Foot Ankle Int 2012; 33: 92-8.

Hsu, YT et al. Surgical treatment of syndesmotic diastasis: emphasis on effect of syndesmotic screw on ankle function. Int Orthop 2011; 35:359-64

Jani MM et al. A protocol for treatment of unstable ankle fractures using transarticular fixation in patients with diabetes mellitus and loss of protective sensibility. Foot Ankle Int. 2003 Nov;24(11):838-44

Jaskulka RA et al. Fractures of the posterior tibial margin: their role in the prognosis of malleolar fractures. J Trauma 1989;29:1565-70

Kannus P et al. Increasing number and incidence of low-trauma ankle fractures in elderly people: Finnish statistics during 1970-2000 and projections for the future. Bone. 2002;31:430-3

Kennedy JG, Soffe KE, Dalla Vedova P, Stephens MM, O'Brien T, Walsh MG, et al. Evaluation of the syndesmotic screw in low Weber C ankle fractures. JOT 2000;14:359-66

Klammer G et al. Posterior pilon fractures: a retrospective case series and proposed classification sys- tem. Foot Ankle Int 2013; 34:189-199.

Klitzman R et al. Suture-button versus screw fixation of the syndesmosis: a biomechanical analysis. FAI 2010; 31:69-75

Koval KJ et al. Does a positive ankle stress test indicate the need for operative treatment after lateral malleolus fracture? A preliminary report. J Orthop Trauma 2007;21:449-55

Kristiansen B. Ankle and foot fractures in diabetics provoking neuropathic joint changes. Acta Orthop Scand. 1980 Dec;51(6):975-9

Lauge-Hansen N. Fractures of the ankle II. Combined experimental-surgical and experimental-roentgenologic investigations. Arch Surg 1950; 60:957-85

Lehtonen H et al. Use of a cast compared with a functional ankle brace after operative treatment of an ankle fracture. A prospective, randomized study. JBJS 2003;85A:205-11

Limbird RS et al. Laterally comminuted fracture-dislocation of the ankle. JBJS 1987;69A:881-5

Lloyd J et al. Revisiting the concept of talar shift in ankle fractures. FAI 2006;27:793-6

Makwana NK et al. Conservative versus operative treatment for displaced ankle fractures in patients over 55 years of age. A prospective, randomised study. JBJS 2001; 83B:525-9

Manjoo A et al. Functional and radiographic results of patients with syndesmotic screw fixation: implications for screw removal. J Orthop Trauma. 2010;24:2-6.

Manoukian D et al. Is early operative fixation of unstable ankle fractures cost effective? Comparison of the cost of early versus late surgery. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2013; 23:835-837.

Markolf KL et al. Syndesmosis fixation using dual 3.5 mm and 4.5 mm screws with tricortical and quad- ricortical purchase: a biomechanical study. Foot Ankle Int 2013; 34:734-739.

Martin AG. Weber B ankle fracture: an unnecessary fracture clinic burden. Injury. 2004;35:805-8

McBryde A, Chiasson B, Wilhelm A, Donovan F, Ray T, Bacilla P. Syndesmotic screw placement: a biomechanical analysis. Foot Ankle Int 1997;18(5):262-6.

McConnell, T, Tornetta P, 3rd Marginal plafond impaction in association with supination-adduction ankle fractures: a report of eight cases. J Orthop Trauma 2001; 15: 447-449.

McConnell T et al. Stress examination of supination external rotation-type fibular fractures. JBJS 2004;86A:2171-8

McCormack RG et al. Ankle fractures in diabetics. Complications of surgical management. JBJS 1998;80(4):689-92

Michelson JD et al. Clinical utility of a stability-based ankle fracture classification system. JOT 2007; 21:307-15

Michelson JD et al. Economic analysis of roentgenogram use in the closed treatment of stable ankle fractures. J. Trauma, 1995;39:1119-1122

Michelson JD et al. Examination of the pathological anatomy of ankle fractures. J. Trauma, 1992;32:65-70

Michelson JD et al. Motion of the ankle in a simulated supination- external rotation fracture model. JBJS 1996;78A:1024-1031

Michelson JD et al. The effect of loading on tibiotalar alignment in cadaver ankles. Foot Ankle 1990;10:280-4

Michelson JD. Fractures around the ankle. JBJS, 1995. 77A(1): p142-149

Michelson J, Solocoff D, Waldman B, Kendell K, Ahn U. Ankle fractures. The Lauge-Hansen classification revisited. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1997;345:198-205.

Miller AN et al. Direct Visualization for Syndesmotic Stabilization of Ankle Fractures. FAI 2009; 30:419-26

Miller AN et al. Functional outcomes after syndesmotic screw fixation and removal. J Orthop Trauma. 2010; 24:12-6

Miller AN et al. Posterior malleolar stabilization of syndesmotic injuries is equivalent to screw fixation. CORR 2010; 468:1129-35

Mingo-Robinet J et al. Ankle fractures with posterior malleolar fragment: management and results. J Foot Ankle Surg 2011; 50:141-145.

Moore JA, Shank JR, Morgan SJ, Smith WR. Syndesmosis fixation: a comparison of three and four corti- ces of screw fixation without hardware removal. Foot Ankle Int. 2006;27:567-72

Murphy JM et al. Variability in radiographic medial clear space measurement of the normal weight- bearing ankle. Foot Ankle Int 2012; 33:956-963.

Naqvi GA et al. Fixation of ankle syndesmotic injuries: comparison of tightrope fixation and syndesmot- ic screw fixation for accuracy of syndesmotic reduction. Am J Sports Med 2012; 40:2828-2835.

Nielson JH et al. Correlation of interosseous membrane tears to the level of the fibular fracture. J Orthop Trauma. 2004 Feb;18(2):68-74

Nielson JH et al. Radiographic Measurements Do Not Predict Syndesmotic Injury in Ankle Fractures. An MRI Study. CORR 2005; 436:216-21

Obremskey WT et al. Change over time of SF-36 functional outcomes for operatively treated unstable ankle fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2002 Jan;16(1):30-3

Pereira DS et al. Tibiotalar contact area and pressure distribution: the effect of mortise widening and syndesmosis fixation. FAI 1996; 17: 269-74

Pettrone FA et al. Quantitative criteria for prediction of the results after displaced fracture of the ankle. JBJS 1983;65A:667-77

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Sanders DW et al. Operative versus nonoperative treatment of unstable lateral malleolar fractures: a randomized multicenter trial. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 2012; 26:129-134.

Schepers T. To retain or remove the syndesmotic screw: a review of literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2011; 131:879-83

Schepers T et al. The timing of ankle fracture surgery and the effect on infectious complications; a case series and systematic review of the literature. Int Orthop 2013; 37:489-494.

Schock HJ et al. The use of gravity or manual-stress radiographs in the assessment of supination-external rotation fractures of the ankle. JBJS 2006; 89B:1055-9

Schuberth JM  et al. Deltoid ligament integrity in lateral malleolar fractures: a comparative analysis of arthroscopic and radiographic assessments. JFAS 2004;43:20-9

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